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> Major Roles
Major Roles of the TPB
The TPB does not exercise direct control over funding and does not implement projects, but it does perform a range of activities that promote an integrated approach to transportation development. The requirements of federal law compel the key transportation players in the region to work through the TPB process. The TPB exercises its basic role as a coordinating agency in several ways:
- The TPB ensures compliance with federal laws and requirements.
Federal requirements inject consistency and coordination into regional
transportation decision-making. The federally mandated metropolitan
planning process requires all MPOs across the country to produce two
basic documents—a long-range plan, which in the Washington region
is called the Financially Constrained
Long-Range Transportation Plan (CLRP), and a Transportation
Improvement Program (TIP), which lists projects and programs that
will be funded in the next six years. Since 2000, the CLRP has used
a planning horizon of 25 years. In order to receive federal funding,
transportation projects must be included in the CLRP and the TIP.
Federal law also requires the TPB to show that the region will have adequate funds to build the projects listed in these two main planning documents. The funding for the CLRP and TIP must be “reasonably expected to be available,” according to federal transportation law enacted in 1991. This financial constraint is intended to make sure the different partners in the region’s transportation system are realistically planning for the future.
In addition, the TPB must make sure that the projects in its CLRP
and the TIP, taken collectively, contribute to air
quality improvement goals for the region. This is a requirement
of the federal Clean
Air Act. The TPB must also comply with federal laws, regulations
and policies stipulating that regional transportation plans must
not disproportionately affect low-income
or minority communities in an adverse way.
- The TPB provides a regional transportation policy framework and
a forum for coordination. While federal law and regulations drive
much of the region’s regular transportation planning activities, the
TPB has also developed a policy framework—known as the Vision—
that is intended to guide the region’s transportation investments
in the new century.
Approved in 1998, the Vision is a long-range document laying out key goals and strategies that will help the region to develop the transportation system it needs to sustain economic development, environmental quality and a high quality of life. The agencies that implement transportation projects—the states, the District of Columbia, the regional transit authority and others—must show that the goals of their projects are consistent with the Vision.
- The TPB provides technical resources for decision-making. Finally, the TPB is a technical resource. The TPB staff is continually working in close coordination with the staffs from the local and state jurisdictions and WMATA, as well as with outside consultants, to produce numerous studies and analyses. This technical information is essential for the decisions made by the TPB itself and for the decisions of the jurisdictions comprising the region.
Technical information and analysis are prepared on a variety of topics, most of which fit into a few broad categories. Travel monitoring activities gather information on current travel patterns and conditions. For example, data is collected on transportation facilities throughout the region to assess the performance of highway and transit facilities. Congestion levels are calculated based upon measures of the average number of cars per lane-mile of highway. Personal travel patterns are also surveyed to determine how people are traveling, for what purpose and how far.
forecasting develops predictions about future travel conditions.
The TPB staff develops these forecasts using computer programs (“models”)
whose inputs include assumptions about the future, including projected
population and job growth, data about planned or potential improvements
in the transportation system, and assumptions about future travel
demand. The model’s outputs produce travel forecasts that inform
a variety of decisions, such as helping to determine how various
transportation investments will affect mobility in the region. Information
about current and future travel conditions is used for a number
of purposes—especially for the regional air quality analysis required
by the federal Clean Air
Act Amendments of 1990, as amended. Technical data produced
by the TPB staff are also used by other jurisdictions and agencies.
The states, the District of Columbia and WMATA (the regional transit
authority) use TPB data on a regular basis to plan and operate their
services and facilities.